Groupings and Digital Filters


1. The act or process of uniting into groups.
2. A collection of people or things united into a group.
Digital Filters
In electronics, computer science and mathematics, a digital filter is a system that performs mathematical operations on a sampled, discrete-time signal to reduce or enhance certain aspects of that signal. This is in contrast to the other major type of electronic filter, the analog filter, which is an electronic circuit operating on continuous-time analog signals. An analog signal may be processed by a digital filter by first being digitized and represented as a sequence of numbers, then manipulated mathematically, and then reconstructed as a new analog signal (see digital signal processing). In an analog filter, the input signal is “directly” manipulated by the circuit.
A digital filter system usually consists of an analog-to-digital converter to sample the input signal, followed by a microprocessor and some peripheral components such as memory to store data and filter coefficients etc. Finally a digital-to-analog converter to complete the output stage. Program Instructions (software) running on the microprocessor implement the digital filter by performing the necessary mathematical operations on the numbers received from the ADC. In some high performance applications, an FPGA or ASIC is used instead of a general purpose microprocessor, or a specialized DSP with specific paralleled architecture for expediting operations such as filtering.
Digital filters may be more expensive than an equivalent analog filter due to their increased complexity, but they make practical many designs that are impractical or impossible as analog filters. Since digital filters use a sampling process and discrete-time processing, they experience latency (the difference in time between the input and the response), which is almost irrelevant in analog filters.


Rule Based Reaoning (RBR) requires us to elicit an explicit model of the domain. As we all know and have experienced, knowledge acquisition has a set of associated problems. In contrast, Case Based Reasoning (CBR) does not require an explicit model. Cases that identify the significant features are gathered and added to the case base during development and after deployment. This is easier than creating an explicit model, as it is possible to develop case bases without passing through the knowledge-acquisition bottleneck.
Domain experts would have accumulated knowledge over the years through experience. It would be a blunder mistake if we do not use them to our advantage. But the difficulty lies in getting the experts to list down the decision rules which they use. It is a Herculean task to comprehensively recall all the tacit rules which they have come to adopt. However, they usually have little difficulty in recalling concrete cases, which they have encountered in practice. Thus, their mental set appears to be oriented towards a Case Based Reasoning approach.
Developing a CBR system is much faster and easier than constructing a rule-based equivalent. Case bases do not have to be complete when they are deployed for use, as even non-computer experts can add cases to the existing structure.
Maintenance with a Rule Based System may be a nightmare. If the rules are not written clearly, it would lead to many sleepless nights of debugging. Maintenance with Case Based Systems are much easier and straightforward.
When rules are added or deleted from a rule-based system, the system has to be checked for conflicting rules and redundant rules. An addition or deletion of a case from the case base does not any further checking or debugging. But it have to be noted that while it does not affect the system’s functioning, it may have an impact on the outcome of the system.

Foot-and-mouth disease

HANOI – Vietnam has asked international health experts to help investigate a mystery illness that has killed 19 people and sickened 171 others in an impoverished district in central Vietnam, an official said today.
The infection has mostly affected children and young people. It begins with a high fever, loss of appetite and a rash that covers the hands and feet. Patients who are not treated early can develop liver problems and eventually face multi-organ failure, said Mr Le Han Phong, chairman of the People’s Committee in Ba To District in Quang Ngai province.
Nearly 100 people remain hospitalised, including 10 in critical condition. Patients with milder symptoms are being treated at home. The illness responds well to treatment if detected early, but 29 patients have been reinfected, Mr Phong said.
The Ministry of Health sent a team of health officials to the area earlier this month, but they were unable to determine the cause of the illness. The ministry has since asked the World Health Organisation and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to help investigate.
A WHO spokesman said the Geneva-based body had not yet received the request from Vietnam.
“We can’t investigate without an official request,” said Mr Tarik Jasarevic.
The ailment was first detected last April, but the number of cases had died down by October. A fresh spate of infections started last month, with 68 cases and eight deaths reported between March 27 and April 5, Mr Phong said.
Most of the patients are from Ba Dien village in Ba To. It is one of the poorest districts in the province and home to many from the Hre ethnic minority. AP

Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease (Aphtae epizooticae) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids. The virus causes a high fever for two or three days, followed by blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness.
Foot-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming, since it is highly infectious and can be spread by infected animals through aerosols, through contact with contaminated farming equipment, vehicles, clothing or feed, and by domestic and wild predators.[1] Its containment demands considerable efforts in vaccination, strict monitoring, trade restrictions and quarantines, and occasionally the elimination of millions of animals.
Susceptible animals include cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, deer, and bison. It has also been known to infect hedgehogs, elephants,[1][2] llama, and alpaca may develop mild symptoms, but are resistant to the disease and do not pass it on to others of the same species.[1] In laboratory experiments, mice and rats and chickens have been successfully infected by artificial means, but it is not believed that they would contract the disease under natural conditions.[1] Humans are very rarely affected.
The virus responsible for the disease is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. Infection occurs when the virus particle is taken into a cell of the host. The cell is then forced to manufacture thousands of copies of the virus, and eventually bursts, releasing the new particles in the blood. The virus is highly variable,[3] which limits the effectiveness of vaccination.

Multiple frames in 2D for 3D Search Engine

Example of a working model of photowall

The above bottom border design will contain frames in 2D combined with the multiple images of the 3D Cube, with a right hand border for controls to group and link and compare each frameset. I can easily toggle between 2D and 3D views to display the above. With so much information I provide, it is already possible to create the UI for browsers in 3D, Developers who face problems can contact me via Skype ID : (gilbert.tan.ts) and I will explain my solution, I will only reveal how I do (groupings) with (controls) to create intelligence with very accurate results to find all your answers later, when I get where I want to go, or else I will never reveal it. My 3D search engine is an idea I invented 10 years back, and I have no wish to patent just an idea, there could be variations of it created by others, and there is no stopping innovations, but if it combines with intelligent searches with very accurate results, then I have a recipe of success no one could follow, I would have the rights to patent my secrets. Verdict : Granting a generic patent (3D design)is a bad idea if it stops the progress of innovations for mankind. There could be so many variations. Unless you specify using source codes or a method or a specific way of doing things. So you know what is the answer for Oracle vs Google?

Developing software prototypes

Software prototyping, refers to the activity of creating prototypes of software applications, i.e., incomplete versions of the software program being developed. It is an activity that can occur in software development and is comparable to prototyping as known from other fields, such as mechanical engineering or manufacturing.
A prototype typically simulates only a few aspects of, and may be completely different from, the final product.
Prototyping has several benefits: The software designer and implementer can get valuable feedback from the users early in the project. The client and the contractor can compare if the software made matches the software specification, according to which the software program is built. It also allows the software engineer some insight into the accuracy of initial project estimates and whether the deadlines and milestones proposed can be successfully met. The degree of completeness and the techniques used in the prototyping have been in development and debate since its proposal in the early 1970s.[6]

In computer science, a formal specification is a mathematical description of software or hardware that may be used to develop an implementation. It describes what the system should do, not (necessarily) how the system should do it. Given such a specification, it is possible to use formal verification techniques to demonstrate that a candidate system design is correct with respect to the specification. This has the advantage that incorrect candidate system designs can be revised before a major investment has been made in actually implementing the design. An alternative approach is to use provably correct refinement steps to transform a specification into a design, and ultimately into an actual implementation, that is correct by construction.
A design (or implementation) cannot ever be declared “correct” in isolation, but only “correct with respect to a given specification”. Whether the formal specification correctly describes the problem to be solved is a separate issue. It is also a difficult issue to address, since it ultimately concerns the problem constructing abstracted formal representations of an informal concrete problem domain, and such an abstraction step is not amenable to formal proof. However, it is possible to validate a specification by proving “challenge” theorems concerning properties that the specification is expected to exhibit. If correct, these theorems reinforce the specifier’s understanding of the specification and its relationship with the underlying problem domain. If not, the specification probably needs to be changed to better reflect the domain understanding of those involved with producing (and implementing) the specification.
The Z notation is an example of a leading formal specification language. Others include the Specification Language(VDM-SL) of the Vienna Development Method and the Abstract Machine Notation (AMN) of the B-Method. In the Web services area, formal specification is often used to describe non-functional properties [1] (Web services Quality of Service).