Antibiotic Resistence and TB, HFMD, and STD outbreak

Antibiotic resistance is a type of drug resistance where a microorganism is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic. While a spontaneous or induced genetic mutation in bacteria may confer resistance to antimicrobial drugs, genes that confer resistance can be transferred between bacteria in a horizontal fashion by conjugation, transduction, or transformation. Thus, a gene for antibiotic resistance that evolves via natural selection may be shared. Evolutionary stress such as exposure to antibiotics then selects for the antibiotic resistant trait. Many antibiotic resistance genes reside on plasmids, facilitating their transfer. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multidrug resistant (MDR) or, informally, a superbug or super bacterium.
Genes for resistance to antibiotics, like the antibiotics themselves, are ancient.[1] However, the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections seen in clinical practice stems from antibiotic use both within human medicine and veterinary medicine. Any use of antibiotics can increase selective pressure in a population of bacteria to allow the resistant bacteria to thrive and the susceptible bacteria to die off. As resistance towards antibiotics becomes more common, a greater need for alternative treatments arises. However, despite a push for new antibiotic therapies there has been a continued decline in the number of newly approved drugs.[2][clarification needed] Antibiotic resistance therefore poses a significant problem.
There appears to be a connection with the outbreaks of TB, HFMD and STD due to antibiotic resistence that mutates into new forms of bacteria that will not be effective with today’s drugs.  
04:45 AM May 09, 2012
MUMBAI – A new superbug from India could spread around the world – in part because of medical tourism – and scientists say there are almost no drugs to treat it.
Researchers said yesterday they had found a new gene called New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase, or NDM-1, in patients in South Asia and in Britain.
United States health officials said yesterday there had been three cases so far in the US – all from patients who received recent medical care in India, a country where people often travel to in search of affordable healthcare.
NDM-1 makes bacteria highly resistant to almost all antibiotics, including the most powerful class called carbapenems. Experts say there are no new drugs on the horizon to tackle it.
“It’s a specific mechanism. A gene that confers a type of resistance (to antibiotics),” Dr Alexander Kallen of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta said in a telephone interview.
With more people travelling to find less costly medical treatments, particularly for procedures such as cosmetic surgery, lead author Timothy Walsh, from Britain’s Cardiff University, said he feared the new superbug could soon spread across the globe.
In a study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal, Prof Walsh’s team found NDM-1 is jumping beyond India. More than 40 countries have discovered the genetically altered superbugs in blood, urine and other patient specimens. Canada, France, Italy, Kosovo and South Africa have found them in people with no travel links, suggesting the bugs have taken hold there.
The researchers said the epicentre is India, where drugs created to fight diseases have taken a perverse turn by making many ailments harder to treat.
India’s US$12.4 billion (S$15.5 billion) pharmaceutical industry manufactures almost a third of the world’s antibiotics and people use them so liberally that relatively benign and beneficial bacteria are becoming drug immune in a pool of resistance that thwarts even high-powered antibiotics, the so-called remedies of last resort.
Poor hygiene has spread resistant germs into India’s drains, sewers and drinking water, putting millions at risk of drug-defying infections. Antibiotic residues from drug manufacturing, livestock treatment and medical waste have entered water and sanitation systems, exacerbating the problem.
As the super bacteria take up residence in hospitals, they are compromising patient care and tarnishing India’s image as a medical tourism destination.
“It’s a matter of time and chance,” said Dr Mark Toleman, a molecular geneticist at Cardiff University.
“There is a tsunami that’s going to happen in the next year or two when antibiotic resistance explodes. We need wartime measures to deal with this now.”
Mr R K Srivastava, India’s former Director-General of Health Services, said the government is giving top priority to antimicrobial resistance, including increasing surveillance of hospitals’ antibiotics use.
At the same time, it is trying to preserve the country’s health-tourism industry. Bristling that foreigners coined a name that singles out their capital to describe an emerging health nightmare, officials say the world is picking on India for troubles that impede all developing nations.
“These bacteria were present globally,” said Mr Nirmal K Ganguly, a former director-general of the Indian Council of Medical Research and one of 13 members of a government task force created in September 2010 to respond to the NDM-1 threat.
“When you are blamed, the only reaction is that you put your back to the wall and fight,” he said. Agencies

Author: Gilbert Tan TS

IT expert with more than 20 years experience in Multiple OS, Security, Data & Internet , Interests include AI and Big Data, Internet and multimedia. An experienced Real Estate agent, Insurance agent, and a Futures trader. I am capable of finding any answers in the world you want as long as there are reports available online for me to do my own research to bring you closest to all the unsolved mysteries in this world, because I can find all the paths to the Truth, and what the Future holds. All I need is to observe, test and probe to research on anything I want, what you need to do will take months to achieve, all I need is a few hours.​

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